Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women globally, the second most common cancer type in our country. It is one of the most successfully treatable cancers when detected early and managed effectively. With appropriate treatment Cancers diagnosed at the late stages can also be controlled type.
Cervical cancer cases (99%) are linked to infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV). Most of the HPV infections and precancerous lesions resolve spontaneously and cause no symptoms. However, risk increases for all women with persistent chronic HPV infections and pre-cancerous lesions progress to invasive cervical cancer
Risk factors for HPV persistence and development of cervical cancer.
HPV type – its oncogenicity or cancer-causing strength.
Immune status – people who are immunocompromised, such as those living with HIV, are more likely to have persistent HPV infections and a more rapid progression to pre-cancer and cancer.
Parity (number of babies born) and young age at first birth;
Co-infection with other sexually transmitted agents
Multiple Sexual Partners.
Other severe symptoms may arise at advanced stages depending on to which organs cancer has spread.
Symptoms of early stage cervical cancer:
Symptoms of advanced cervical cancer:
Pre-cancer lesions can be treated with cryotherapy or thermal ablation and Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP). A woman presenting with symptoms of suspicion for cervical cancer must be referred for further evaluation, diagnosis, and management. Treatment depends on the stage of the disease and options include surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Palliative care is also an essential element of cancer management to relieve pain.