Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection
Not being circumcised: Men who were circumcised as children may have a much lower chance of getting penile cancer than those who were not.
Inability to retract the foreskin of the penis :
Improper Hygiene resulting in accumulation of the secretions underneath the foreskin
Smoking and other tobacco use
UV light treatment of psoriasis
The first sign of penile cancer is most often a change in the skin of the penis.
Surgery: It includes partial or total amputation of the penis with or without removal of lymph nodes in the groin
Chemotherapy: It is given in advanced stages of the disease, to reduce the tumor burden and facilitate surgery or in very advanced cases as a palliative therapy.
Radiotherapy: It is used following surgery to control advanced cancers.